Mr. Johnston

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Posted: January 12, 2017


Wed, Jan 25/17 8:35 am

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Canadian Identity

·         Be prepared to give a personal definition of Canadian Identity, what it includes and what it is affected by.  Feel free to include anything you have learned in this course.

·         ART= French, British, Aboriginal.  How does their art reflect Canadian identity?  What affected or influenced their art?

·         CRTC=What is it? What is its role?  Is it still relevant/needed?


Chapter 2: Canada’s Physical Geography

·         What is topography?  What are the elements of topography (elevation, relief, gradient, geology)

·         How are landforms shaped? (weathering, erosion, deposition, mountain building)

·         Eight Landform Regions = How are Canada’s geographic regions classified?  What are the 8?  Be able to place them on a map.  Be able to describe them or give a detail of each.

·         Climate = what are the Global and Regional factors that affect climate.  Global are:  latitude, air masses & winds, ocean currents; Regional are: altitude, bodies of water, mountain barriers.  Be able to explain how all these factors affect climate.

·         What are the climate regions in Canada?  A. TropicalB. Dry ClimateC. Warm, Moist D. Cool, Moist (also known as temperate continental)E. Polar


Chapter 3: Canada’s People

·         Pop.Density & Pop. Distribution:  What are each?  Be prepared to define and explain w/ reference to Canada. 

·          Population Distribution = why have we chosen to live where we have to live? (near the border, around lakes & rivers, near natural resources)

·         Site vs. Situation factors.  Define each.  Be prepared to discuss w/ real life Canadian examples. P.43 in your textbookCanadian settlement patterns = In different regions of Canada, what occurred? The regions of Atlantic Canada, New France(Quebec), Ontario, Prairies, British Columbia and the North

·         Decline of rural population – Know percentages know the dates1881 = 75% rural; 1961 = 62% urban; 2001 = 81% urban

·         Industrial revolution…what was it?  What effect would it have on pop. distribution?

·         What are the 5 political regions of Canada?  Be able to name and describe them or give details about them.  P.52 in textbook.

·         Where is the core?  What is it the core? What is the periphery and what does it provide to the core?


Chapter 4: Migration

·         Know the different ways that it is believed First Nations came to Canada.

·         Know the difference between Push & Pull factors.  Be prepared to explain or give an example that is clear and understood.

·         What is “multiculturalism”?  Has Canadian immigration always promoted a multicultural society?  If not, explain specifically how not.

·         What is the difference between Canada’s acceptance of immigrants pre-1945 and post-1945?What are the three classes of Canadian immigrants?  Be prepared to explain each.  How many immigrants does Canada accept a year?

·         What is emigration?  What is the “brain drain?”  Why should we be concerned about a brain drain?   Why shouldn’t we be concerned about a brain drain?


Chapter 5: Responses to Geographic Influences

·         Know the location of Australia.  How does it compare/contrast to Canada?

·         Know the climate zones of Australia.  How do they compare/contrast to Canada?

·         Know the landforms of Australia.  How do they compare/contrast to Canada?

·         Know Australia’s population, population density, population distribution, and land area size.  How do these compare/contrast to Canada?  


Chapter 6: Prosperity & Depression

·         What was life like in Canada post World War I?

·         Why was the Maritime economy so particularly depressed just post-WWI? (think about rail/freight costs, tariffs, lack of capital investment)

·         Be prepared to explain the importance of electricity in boosting the economy. 

·         How did lifestyles begin to change in the 1920’s?

·         Era of Prosperity = 1920’s; but not everybody enjoyed prosperity.  Who didn’t and why?  What was life like for them?

·         Tues. Oct.29th, 1929 = Black Tuesday. 

·         What were the root causes of the Depression? (this is on my webpage; for the love of God and all that is holy look it up…for your sake and my sanity) 

·         What was the Depression?  What was life like during the Depression?  Be prepared to describe it in detail. 

·         Who was Bennett?  Be prepared to discuss him and his importance/legacy.  


Chapter 7: Canada at War


·         Be prepared to explain the four phases of WWII and more specifically what Canada’s role was in each of these stages?  At war’s end, where did Canada stand in the ranks of world powers?

Posted: December 18, 2016


Thu, Dec 22/16 11:03 am


Chapter 8: Investigation and Arrest


Multiple Choice (15pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Matching (5pts)

Short Answer Questions (15pts)

Case Studies x 2 (5pts each)


·         Know all definitions from each of the four sections

·         Review all questions and answers that were given for each of the four sections.

Section 1: Levels of Police in Canada

·         What are the four levels of police? For where are they responsible?

·         With what type of responsibilities are each level of police force tasked? Ie: RCMP are responsible for federal policing, criminal intelligence, and customs and excise; while Provincial police are responsible for traffic control, investigative services; Municipal police are responsible for investigative services in respective cities, enforcing by-laws, and executing warrants (once again within city).

·         NOTE: generally, police force responsibilities are all very similar, its just a question of jurisdiction

·         What are the only three provinces that have their own Provincial Police force?

Section 2: Starting a Police Investigation

·         What is the difference between a centre and a perimeter?  What does contamination mean?

·         What are the 3 reasons for preserving a crime scene? 1)allow for a thorough search; 2) to seize and collect physical evidence; 3)ensure that evidence is admissible in court

·         What is a police log and why is it kept?

·         What are the four types of officers at a crime scene?  Be able to briefly describe their role or function at a crime scene.

Section 3: Identifying and Collecting Physical Evidence

·         Be able to differentiate (tell the difference) between class characteristics and individual characteristics.  You could focus on examples like tires or footprints.

·         What kind of information can be gathered from footprints at a crime scene?

·         Fingerprints: What are the three different ways to ‘lift’ latent prints?

·         Know the definitions of physical evidence and forensic science.

·         What is the most common body substance found at a crime scene? Its blood.  What other body elements may be found? How do we test them?  Police need what to compel (force) you to provice a blood/urine/breath sample? = a warrant.  When is a warrant NOT needed to get one of these samples?

·         DNA.  DNA differs for every human with what exception?

·         Differentiate between a chain of custody and labelling evidence.  Why do we have a chain of custody?  What type of information appears on an evidence label?

Section 4: Arrest and Detention

·         Can a police officer force someone to answer questions?  Why not?  What protects a suspect or individual?

·         Through what document are an individual’s rights guaranteed.

·         What is the four stage approach to interrogating a suspect? (see p.202) Be able to give examples of open-ended and close-ended questions in an interrogation.

·         What is the procedure for arresting an individual?  Be prepared to list the four steps.

·         Are you require to question someone before arresting them?

·         What is the difference between an arrest and a detention?  What is the purpose of a detention?  In order to arrest, police must have what? = reasonable grounds.  What is the meaning of reasonable grounds?

·         What are the three methods for apprehending an offender?  1)an appearance notice, 2)arrest with a warrant, 3)arrest without a warrant.  Be prepared to explain how each of the three work.  When can police arrest without a warrant?  What is an information?  To whom is it given?

·         What is a summons?  Under what circumstances is it usually issued?

·         Explain the procedure for a citizen’s arrest.  Why are they rarely done?

·         Search Warrant = what are they? when are they needed? Is there ever circumstances they are not needed?  Explain if so.

Section 5: Pre-Trial Release

·         Know the three ways that somebody may be released pre-trail: 1)promise to appear; 2)recognizance; and 3)surety.  Be able to explain any or all.


·         What is reverse onus in reference to bail?  Under what four circumstances is it applicable?

Posted: December 13, 2016


Tue, Dec 20/16 9:40 am

NOTE:  Test post-poned until Tues. Dec. 20th, 2016


1.      What was the difference between the 1920s and the 1930s economically?

2.      How did the end of WWI affect the Canadian economy?

3.      How was the experience of Atlantic Canada different from the rest of Canada when talking about the Roaring Twenties? hint: Look in A Stalled Economy for Others

4.      Definitions – need to know, and be able to explain, tariff, primary vs. secondary industry, installment plan

5.      What factors hampered the Maritime economy in the 1920s? (see p.88 of textbook, you’ve already answered this)

6.      What was the experience of the First Nations in the 1920s? Know the word assimilate.  Know residential schools. Know Indian Act restrictions. (all on p.92)

7.      How did electricity drive economic growth in the 1920s?  What effect did mass production have on life of the 1920s?

8.      How did women’s roles change in the 1920’s?  Look at education on p.91 and track through to Changing and Conflicting Attitudes on p.94.

9.      Definitions – know the terms stocks, share, dividend, public relief, public works and balanced budget.

10.  How did the stock market and stocks and shares help the economy to grow in the 1920s (before the Great Depression that is)?

11.  What is Black Tuesday?  When and why did the stock market crash? Answer – Thurs. Oct.24th – Tues.Oct.29th,  1929 because share prices started to fall and became worth less money.  People panicked, tried to get their money out of stocks, this caused them to crash/fall faster.  Without confidence in the market by investors, the market crashed.

12.  What are the root causes of the Depression? Answer - With easy and available credit, people bought and sold more goods.  Credit was even being used to buy stocks.  Everybody believed the good times would not end, so they spent money freely.  Canada’s economy was closely tied to that of the US.  As their economy slowed, so did ours.  In Canada, we relied on trade to foreign countries for growth and by 1932 this dropped by 50%.

13.  Describe the difficult conditions of the Depression – hint: look to “Social Conditions” and “Hard Times Across the Country” in your notes as two sources.

14.  What were the new political parties created out of the Depression?  Why might they be considered only regional parties?  What ideas did each of them offer and why would these ideas have been attractive to Canadians?

15.  Explain the significance of terms like “Bennett buggie,” “eggs Bennett,” “Bennett blanket,” and “Bennett coffee.”  What does this tell us about Canadian’s perceptions of R.B. Bennett.

16.  What was the trend of the unemployment rate in Canada over the course of the late 1920s and 1930s?


17.      From what we have studied, explain why this chapter is titled what it is?

Posted: November 29, 2016

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Per. 1: Canadian Literature 120

  • Make sure you have finished reading to the end of p.210 in "Book of Negroes"
  • Have all questions finished to the end of this section:  questions for this section (including those handed out today) can be found as an attachment to this note.

Per. 2: Canadian Identity 9

  • Wrote the Chapter 5: Response to Geographic Influences test today.  Anyone absent will need to arrange a lunchtime or after school time to write this test immediately upon their return.

Per.3: Law 120

  • Wrote the Chapter 7:Criminal Court Structure test today.  Anyone absent will need to arrange a lunchtime or after school time to write this test immediately upon their return.
  • From Monday, when we began Chapter 8: Investigations & Arrest, Sec.1: Levels of Police in Canada, students will need to ensure they have read pp.189-193.  ALSO, students are responsible for completing "Building Your Understanding p.193" #'s 1 & 2.

Per.4: Writing 110

  • Students today continued drafting their picture prompt narrative chosen from "The Mysteries of Harris Burdick."  The following is a link to those pictures AND the title/story line from each that must guide your stories.
  • There is no expectation to have this finished for tomorrow; however, students should be thinking of the story they wish to tell which will capture audiences attention, entertain audiences, and keep them reading.

Posted: November 24, 2016


Tue, Nov 29/16 11:03 am


Multiple Choice (20pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (8pts)

Short Answer Questions (12pts)

Essay (10pts)

Case Study (5pts)


Criminal Court Structure

·         Provincial Courts à where do they rank? (chart p.163)  How are some divided?  What type of cases do they hear?  Who appoints judges to it?

·         What is a preliminary hearing?  Which courts hear these?

·         Federal Courtsà what types are there?  Trial Division, Appeal Division, Supreme Court (other courts included Tax Court & Court Martial Appeal Court); what kind of cases do they hear? (p.166) 

·         What is the difference between a summary and an indictable offence? (p.164)

·         What is the highest court within a province?

·         Supreme Court à what are its functions?  How many judges are there and from where?

·         What are the differences among Section 469, 553 and 554 criminal code offences?

The Participants

·         What are 2 fundamental principles that guide Canada’s criminal justice system? (p.168)

·         How do a judge and justice of the peace differ?  How are they similar?

·         A person charged w/ a crime is referred to as what? (2 different ways)

·         What is duty counsel and how do they compare to defense counsel?  How does a defense counsel’s job change depending on your plea?

·         What are the names for lawyers representing the government’s or society’s interests?

·         What do court clerks, court reporters, court security, and bailiffs do?

·         Witnesses are summoned to court by what document? 

·         What is lying under oath called? What is the punishment for it?

Role of the Jury

·         How many on a jury normally?  What are the eligibility requirements for jury duty? (2things)

·         What is the role of the jury foreperson?  How are they chosen?

·         How is a jury chosen?  From jury panel forward be prepared to explain.

·         What is a challenge for cause?  What are some examples of cause?  What is a peremptory challenge?  Why do they exist?  How many of either challenges do you get?

The Criminal Trial Process

·         What are the steps/stages in a criminal trial and be prepared to explain each.

1.       arraignment

2.       jury selection

3.       judges’ address to jury

4.       opening statements by the Crown

5.       Crown Witness (direct/indirect examinations)

6.       option of a motion for dismissal by defense

7.       opening statements by defense

8.       defense witnesses (direct/indirect examination)

9.       Rebuttal

10.   Surrebuttal

11.   Closing Arguments (Crown goes first is defense called no witnesses)

12.   Judges address to jury

13.   Jury deliberates

14.   Jury returns verdict

·         What is an indirect vs direct examination?

·         What are the 5 grounds for objection and be prepared to explain and give example of each. (p.176)  How and when is objection handled in court?

·         What is a hung jury?  What happens if it occurs? (p.182)

·         What is direct evidence?  How does it differ from circumstantial evidence?

·         What is the opening statements purpose?  What is it not meant to be?

·         What is the charge to the jury meant to be and why must the judge be careful in its delivery?


·         What is an appeal?  When are they held?  By whom?  What are the parties called at an appeal?

Posted: November 18, 2016


Tue, Nov 29/16 9:40 am

Chapter 5: Responses to Geographic InfluencesTest Review

·         What is Australia’s general location in the world?  Southern hemisphere, eastern hemisphere.   South of the equator but not so much that it would experience cold climates like in Canada.

·         Know, and be able to name, all 5 landform regions of Australia.  Be able to draw similarities between these regions and Canada’s regions. ie: Eastern Uplands are ancient fold mountains like the Appalachian region in Canada. OR Western Craton is ancient shield rock similar to the Canadian (Precambrian) Shield.

·         What is the population of Australia?  How does it compare to Canada?  What is pop.density of Australia? (2.6people/km2) and how does this compare to Canada?·         What is the population distribution of Australia?

·         Be prepared to name the 3 climate zones of Australia and tell me where they are located within the country.  How do these zones compare to Canada?  Are there ones they have that we do not?  Are there ones we have that they do not?

·         When did Europeans first arrive in Australia? What kind of people first arrived in Australia?  Who was there before they arrived?

·         Be able to describe life for Australia’s aborigines pre-contact with Europeans.

·         Be prepared to compare/contrast Australian Aborigines experience w/ Europeans to North American natives experience with Europeans

·         What was the White Australia Policy?  How does this compare to Canadian immigration practices of the past?

·         What are artesian wells and aquifers and why are they important to the economy of Australia? 


Mon, Nov 14/16 11:03 am


Multiple Choice (15pts)

True or False (8pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Short Answer (17pts)

Case Study (4pts)

  • What are the 4 conditions for soemthing to be considered a crime.
  • For what reasons are amendments made to teh criminal code?
  • What does ommission mean in terms of crime?
  • What are the 3 main purposes of criminal law (p.140)
  • History of the Criminal Code: created? amended? revised?
  • Before Confederation, who was responsible for criminal laws?
  • What are quasi-criminal laws?  If a law is quasi-criminal, it is generally created by what level of government?  What is the normal punishments for these crimes.  What are some examples of quasi-criminal statutes?


  • Actus reus vs. mens rea:  what do both mean?  Actus reus is only present if the action is what?  Do both need to be present for a crime to have happened?  What are the 5 ways of proving mens rea?  Be able to explain all 5.
  • Intent--> what is the difference between general intent and specific intent?
  • What is motive and how does it differ from intent?
  • What is liability and what are the two types?  What defences can be offered for these 2 types?


  • Perpetrator - Do they need to be present at crime to be a perp or co-perp?
  • What do we call the 4 potential parties to an offence?
  • Be able to, given a scenario, identify if a person is the aider, abetter, counsellor, or accessory?
  • Party to a common intention (p.154)  What does it mean?  How does it affect sentencing/punishment?
  • What are the 2 categories of incomplete crimes?  How do they differ?  How are they the same?

Posted: November 7, 2016


Mon, Nov 14/16 9:40 am

Chapter 3: Canada’s People

  • Know all your definitions (they are the bolded/italicized words in notes)

·       What is population distribution vs. population density?  Be prepared to explain.

·       Population of Canada? Pop.Density of Canada?

·       What is the difference between site and situation factors?  Be able explain and give examples of each.

·       Why did settlements begin where they did in each of the regions of Canada (see 2 bullets below for regions)?

·       What is the difference between urban and rural?  Where do most of Canada’s pop. live?  How has it changed over time?

·       What are Canada’s five regions? Atlantic, Central, The Prairies, British Columbia, the North. (p.52 in textbook)

·       What are the physical/cultural attributes of each?  What are the political/economical attributes of each?  (p.52 in textbook)

·       What is the core vs. peripherary?  What happens in each?  Where is the core of Canada?  Why is it the core?

Chapter 4: Migration: People on the Move

·       Push vs. Pull factors è What are they?  Examples of each?  How have they affected Canadian immigration

·       First Nations è When did they get here?  What are the theories about their arrival?

·       Who controls immigration? The Federal gov’t does

·       Know what a melting pot is vs. a multicultural mosaic

.·       How has our policy of immigration changed over time?  Look at examples of where we have not been accepting of different groups.

·       What is the difference between an immigrant and a refugee?

·       How many immigrants should Canada accept?  How many refugees should Canada accept?  Be prepared to argue both of these questions (good points can be found on p.66 of textbook)

·       Know the idea of emigration (the idea of leaving a country).  With this, know the concept of the “brain drain.”  Is this something we should be worried about?  Why or why not? (p.70 in textbook)

Posted: October 19, 2016


R. v. Hydro-Quebec, [1997] 3.S.C.R. 213  found on p.72


R. v. Crown Zellerbach Canada Ltd., [1988] 1 S.C.R. 401  found on p.73

Both cases were discussed in class on Wednesday, October 19th.  Particular points were made to pay attention to rubric (found on this website under documents) and to reference the legal/social/historical significance of the case AND to ensure you explain the decision arrived at in the case.  All of this is expected while still analysing the case using the guiding questions provided.

Due Date: 

Tuesday, October 25, 2016


Wed, Oct 26/16 11:03 am

Format of the Test

Multiple Choice (20pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Short Answer (14pts)

Essay (5pts)


Sample Short Answer Questions

 1)  Give three reasons why law making is such a difficult task.

(1) laws must be able to meet both the legal challenges and the approval of most citizens;

(2) laws must be enforceable;

(3) laws should balance frequently competing interests.

 2)  Use examples to demonstrate your understanding of the terms intra vires and ultra vires. 

Answers could vary. (e.g., It would be ultra vires the federal Parliament to pass laws that relate to labour and trade unions, however, it would be intra vires if the laws pertained to employment insurance.)

 3)  Identify the two systems of government that Canada was considering at the time of Confederation and explain how they differ.

(1) a unitary system where power is concentrated in one parliament with a Prime Minister, and

(2) a federal system where power is divided between two levels of government: the central (federal) government to look after national interests, and provincial governments that govern on more regional matters.

 4)  What is the purpose of lobby groups? Provide an example.

Lobby groups consist of people who try to influence legislators to pass laws that would favour their cause. Examples will vary, but may include MADD, the Coalition for Gun Control, and LEAF.

 5)  Explain what the following means: "... the distribution of legislative powers was intended to be exhaustive".

 Section 91 of the BNA Act granted legislative control to the federal government in certain designated areas. Section 92 gave the provinces other enumerated heads of power. In addition, the opening words of s. 91 conferred residual powers on the federal government authorizing them to make laws for the "Peace, Order, and Good Government of Canada" (i.e., giving all unassigned areas of law-making to the federal government.) This had the effect of ensuring that every conceivable subject of legislation was assigned to one level of government or the other. 

 6)  Outline the problems that exist with the BNA Act with respect to jurisdictional authority over resources.

Some resources, such as fisheries, are under the jurisdiction of the federal government and others, such as timber and wood, are under provincial control. Therefore, disputes arise over which level of government would have control over other resources such as oil and natural gas. The BNA Act is silent with respect to these resources, since its drafters could not possibly have had them within their contemplation in 1867.

 7)  What obstacle to patriating the Constitution was presented at the Saskatchewan First Minister's Conference in 1982?

Quebec's premier, Renaccent(e) Laccent(e)vesque, was not prepared to support patriation until Quebec was assured of greater economic and cultural powers under the new Constitution.

 8)  Describe the four key components added to Canada's Constitution under the Constitution Act, (1982).

(1) A principle regarding the equalization of services across Canada;

(2) a clearer interpretation of jurisdiction over natural resources;

(3) a formula to clarify how amendments would be made;

(4) a charter guaranteeing individual rights and freedoms was included.

 9)  Identify two reasons why the Charlottetown Accord did not receive unanimous support throughout the country.

(1) Quebec felt the Accord did not give them enough power, but other provinces believed it gave them too much power, and, (2) Aboriginal self-government clauses were of concern to provinces like Quebec 

 10)  What is the primary purpose of Royal Commissions?

Their role is to conduct impartial investigations into specific national problems. They may indicate that new laws are necessary in order to remedy the situation.


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