Mr. Johnston

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Posted: November 29, 2016

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Per. 1: Canadian Literature 120

  • Make sure you have finished reading to the end of p.210 in "Book of Negroes"
  • Have all questions finished to the end of this section:  questions for this section (including those handed out today) can be found as an attachment to this note.

Per. 2: Canadian Identity 9

  • Wrote the Chapter 5: Response to Geographic Influences test today.  Anyone absent will need to arrange a lunchtime or after school time to write this test immediately upon their return.

Per.3: Law 120

  • Wrote the Chapter 7:Criminal Court Structure test today.  Anyone absent will need to arrange a lunchtime or after school time to write this test immediately upon their return.
  • From Monday, when we began Chapter 8: Investigations & Arrest, Sec.1: Levels of Police in Canada, students will need to ensure they have read pp.189-193.  ALSO, students are responsible for completing "Building Your Understanding p.193" #'s 1 & 2.

Per.4: Writing 110

  • Students today continued drafting their picture prompt narrative chosen from "The Mysteries of Harris Burdick."  The following is a link to those pictures AND the title/story line from each that must guide your stories.
  • There is no expectation to have this finished for tomorrow; however, students should be thinking of the story they wish to tell which will capture audiences attention, entertain audiences, and keep them reading.

Posted: November 24, 2016


Tue, Nov 29/16 11:03 am


Multiple Choice (20pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (8pts)

Short Answer Questions (12pts)

Essay (10pts)

Case Study (5pts)


Criminal Court Structure

·         Provincial Courts à where do they rank? (chart p.163)  How are some divided?  What type of cases do they hear?  Who appoints judges to it?

·         What is a preliminary hearing?  Which courts hear these?

·         Federal Courtsà what types are there?  Trial Division, Appeal Division, Supreme Court (other courts included Tax Court & Court Martial Appeal Court); what kind of cases do they hear? (p.166) 

·         What is the difference between a summary and an indictable offence? (p.164)

·         What is the highest court within a province?

·         Supreme Court à what are its functions?  How many judges are there and from where?

·         What are the differences among Section 469, 553 and 554 criminal code offences?

The Participants

·         What are 2 fundamental principles that guide Canada’s criminal justice system? (p.168)

·         How do a judge and justice of the peace differ?  How are they similar?

·         A person charged w/ a crime is referred to as what? (2 different ways)

·         What is duty counsel and how do they compare to defense counsel?  How does a defense counsel’s job change depending on your plea?

·         What are the names for lawyers representing the government’s or society’s interests?

·         What do court clerks, court reporters, court security, and bailiffs do?

·         Witnesses are summoned to court by what document? 

·         What is lying under oath called? What is the punishment for it?

Role of the Jury

·         How many on a jury normally?  What are the eligibility requirements for jury duty? (2things)

·         What is the role of the jury foreperson?  How are they chosen?

·         How is a jury chosen?  From jury panel forward be prepared to explain.

·         What is a challenge for cause?  What are some examples of cause?  What is a peremptory challenge?  Why do they exist?  How many of either challenges do you get?

The Criminal Trial Process

·         What are the steps/stages in a criminal trial and be prepared to explain each.

1.       arraignment

2.       jury selection

3.       judges’ address to jury

4.       opening statements by the Crown

5.       Crown Witness (direct/indirect examinations)

6.       option of a motion for dismissal by defense

7.       opening statements by defense

8.       defense witnesses (direct/indirect examination)

9.       Rebuttal

10.   Surrebuttal

11.   Closing Arguments (Crown goes first is defense called no witnesses)

12.   Judges address to jury

13.   Jury deliberates

14.   Jury returns verdict

·         What is an indirect vs direct examination?

·         What are the 5 grounds for objection and be prepared to explain and give example of each. (p.176)  How and when is objection handled in court?

·         What is a hung jury?  What happens if it occurs? (p.182)

·         What is direct evidence?  How does it differ from circumstantial evidence?

·         What is the opening statements purpose?  What is it not meant to be?

·         What is the charge to the jury meant to be and why must the judge be careful in its delivery?


·         What is an appeal?  When are they held?  By whom?  What are the parties called at an appeal?

Posted: November 18, 2016


Tue, Nov 29/16 9:40 am

Chapter 5: Responses to Geographic InfluencesTest Review

·         What is Australia’s general location in the world?  Southern hemisphere, eastern hemisphere.   South of the equator but not so much that it would experience cold climates like in Canada.

·         Know, and be able to name, all 5 landform regions of Australia.  Be able to draw similarities between these regions and Canada’s regions. ie: Eastern Uplands are ancient fold mountains like the Appalachian region in Canada. OR Western Craton is ancient shield rock similar to the Canadian (Precambrian) Shield.

·         What is the population of Australia?  How does it compare to Canada?  What is pop.density of Australia? (2.6people/km2) and how does this compare to Canada?·         What is the population distribution of Australia?

·         Be prepared to name the 3 climate zones of Australia and tell me where they are located within the country.  How do these zones compare to Canada?  Are there ones they have that we do not?  Are there ones we have that they do not?

·         When did Europeans first arrive in Australia? What kind of people first arrived in Australia?  Who was there before they arrived?

·         Be able to describe life for Australia’s aborigines pre-contact with Europeans.

·         Be prepared to compare/contrast Australian Aborigines experience w/ Europeans to North American natives experience with Europeans

·         What was the White Australia Policy?  How does this compare to Canadian immigration practices of the past?

·         What are artesian wells and aquifers and why are they important to the economy of Australia? 


Mon, Nov 14/16 11:03 am


Multiple Choice (15pts)

True or False (8pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Short Answer (17pts)

Case Study (4pts)

  • What are the 4 conditions for soemthing to be considered a crime.
  • For what reasons are amendments made to teh criminal code?
  • What does ommission mean in terms of crime?
  • What are the 3 main purposes of criminal law (p.140)
  • History of the Criminal Code: created? amended? revised?
  • Before Confederation, who was responsible for criminal laws?
  • What are quasi-criminal laws?  If a law is quasi-criminal, it is generally created by what level of government?  What is the normal punishments for these crimes.  What are some examples of quasi-criminal statutes?


  • Actus reus vs. mens rea:  what do both mean?  Actus reus is only present if the action is what?  Do both need to be present for a crime to have happened?  What are the 5 ways of proving mens rea?  Be able to explain all 5.
  • Intent--> what is the difference between general intent and specific intent?
  • What is motive and how does it differ from intent?
  • What is liability and what are the two types?  What defences can be offered for these 2 types?


  • Perpetrator - Do they need to be present at crime to be a perp or co-perp?
  • What do we call the 4 potential parties to an offence?
  • Be able to, given a scenario, identify if a person is the aider, abetter, counsellor, or accessory?
  • Party to a common intention (p.154)  What does it mean?  How does it affect sentencing/punishment?
  • What are the 2 categories of incomplete crimes?  How do they differ?  How are they the same?

Posted: November 7, 2016


Mon, Nov 14/16 9:40 am

Chapter 3: Canada’s People

  • Know all your definitions (they are the bolded/italicized words in notes)

·       What is population distribution vs. population density?  Be prepared to explain.

·       Population of Canada? Pop.Density of Canada?

·       What is the difference between site and situation factors?  Be able explain and give examples of each.

·       Why did settlements begin where they did in each of the regions of Canada (see 2 bullets below for regions)?

·       What is the difference between urban and rural?  Where do most of Canada’s pop. live?  How has it changed over time?

·       What are Canada’s five regions? Atlantic, Central, The Prairies, British Columbia, the North. (p.52 in textbook)

·       What are the physical/cultural attributes of each?  What are the political/economical attributes of each?  (p.52 in textbook)

·       What is the core vs. peripherary?  What happens in each?  Where is the core of Canada?  Why is it the core?

Chapter 4: Migration: People on the Move

·       Push vs. Pull factors è What are they?  Examples of each?  How have they affected Canadian immigration

·       First Nations è When did they get here?  What are the theories about their arrival?

·       Who controls immigration? The Federal gov’t does

·       Know what a melting pot is vs. a multicultural mosaic

.·       How has our policy of immigration changed over time?  Look at examples of where we have not been accepting of different groups.

·       What is the difference between an immigrant and a refugee?

·       How many immigrants should Canada accept?  How many refugees should Canada accept?  Be prepared to argue both of these questions (good points can be found on p.66 of textbook)

·       Know the idea of emigration (the idea of leaving a country).  With this, know the concept of the “brain drain.”  Is this something we should be worried about?  Why or why not? (p.70 in textbook)

Posted: October 19, 2016


R. v. Hydro-Quebec, [1997] 3.S.C.R. 213  found on p.72


R. v. Crown Zellerbach Canada Ltd., [1988] 1 S.C.R. 401  found on p.73

Both cases were discussed in class on Wednesday, October 19th.  Particular points were made to pay attention to rubric (found on this website under documents) and to reference the legal/social/historical significance of the case AND to ensure you explain the decision arrived at in the case.  All of this is expected while still analysing the case using the guiding questions provided.

Due Date: 

Tuesday, October 25, 2016


Wed, Oct 26/16 11:03 am

Format of the Test

Multiple Choice (20pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Short Answer (14pts)

Essay (5pts)


Sample Short Answer Questions

 1)  Give three reasons why law making is such a difficult task.

(1) laws must be able to meet both the legal challenges and the approval of most citizens;

(2) laws must be enforceable;

(3) laws should balance frequently competing interests.

 2)  Use examples to demonstrate your understanding of the terms intra vires and ultra vires. 

Answers could vary. (e.g., It would be ultra vires the federal Parliament to pass laws that relate to labour and trade unions, however, it would be intra vires if the laws pertained to employment insurance.)

 3)  Identify the two systems of government that Canada was considering at the time of Confederation and explain how they differ.

(1) a unitary system where power is concentrated in one parliament with a Prime Minister, and

(2) a federal system where power is divided between two levels of government: the central (federal) government to look after national interests, and provincial governments that govern on more regional matters.

 4)  What is the purpose of lobby groups? Provide an example.

Lobby groups consist of people who try to influence legislators to pass laws that would favour their cause. Examples will vary, but may include MADD, the Coalition for Gun Control, and LEAF.

 5)  Explain what the following means: "... the distribution of legislative powers was intended to be exhaustive".

 Section 91 of the BNA Act granted legislative control to the federal government in certain designated areas. Section 92 gave the provinces other enumerated heads of power. In addition, the opening words of s. 91 conferred residual powers on the federal government authorizing them to make laws for the "Peace, Order, and Good Government of Canada" (i.e., giving all unassigned areas of law-making to the federal government.) This had the effect of ensuring that every conceivable subject of legislation was assigned to one level of government or the other. 

 6)  Outline the problems that exist with the BNA Act with respect to jurisdictional authority over resources.

Some resources, such as fisheries, are under the jurisdiction of the federal government and others, such as timber and wood, are under provincial control. Therefore, disputes arise over which level of government would have control over other resources such as oil and natural gas. The BNA Act is silent with respect to these resources, since its drafters could not possibly have had them within their contemplation in 1867.

 7)  What obstacle to patriating the Constitution was presented at the Saskatchewan First Minister's Conference in 1982?

Quebec's premier, Renaccent(e) Laccent(e)vesque, was not prepared to support patriation until Quebec was assured of greater economic and cultural powers under the new Constitution.

 8)  Describe the four key components added to Canada's Constitution under the Constitution Act, (1982).

(1) A principle regarding the equalization of services across Canada;

(2) a clearer interpretation of jurisdiction over natural resources;

(3) a formula to clarify how amendments would be made;

(4) a charter guaranteeing individual rights and freedoms was included.

 9)  Identify two reasons why the Charlottetown Accord did not receive unanimous support throughout the country.

(1) Quebec felt the Accord did not give them enough power, but other provinces believed it gave them too much power, and, (2) Aboriginal self-government clauses were of concern to provinces like Quebec 

 10)  What is the primary purpose of Royal Commissions?

Their role is to conduct impartial investigations into specific national problems. They may indicate that new laws are necessary in order to remedy the situation.

Posted: October 3, 2016

PDF icon case_analysis_rubric_g-3.pdf983.94 KB

Posted: October 3, 2016

Complete an analysis for either of the two following cases found on pp.49 & 50 respectively:

1. Spain v. Canada (1998), Fisheries Jurisdiction (I.C.J), on-line <>


2. Mazuelos v. Clark (2000), B.C.H.R.T.I.  

Due Date: 

Tuesday, October 11, 2016

Posted: October 3, 2016


Wed, Oct 12/16 9:40 am


  • Canada's eight landforms; Western Cordillera, Interior Plains, Canadian Shield, Appalachian Highlands, Hudson Bay Lowlands, St. Lawrence -Great Lake Lowlands, Innuitian Mountains, Arctic Lowlands.  Check your textbook for information on these regions OR visit this website is external)
  • You will be expected to know and describe any of the landforms physical features.-
  • Need to know the five different types of climate: A)Tropical Climate, B)Dry Climate, C)Warm, Moist Climate; D)Continental Temperate (cool, moist), Moist Climate; E)Polar Climate
  • Need to know where these climates are found in Canada; which one is not present in Canada
  • Weather: We learned that weather is affected by Global AND Regional elements.  Be prepared to name and describe the factors under each of these categories which affect weather
  • know the the following theories, names, and concepts associated with earth's formation: continental drift, plate tectonics, Alfred Wegener, layers of the earth,
  • know the four ways we describe topography = elevation, relief, gradient, geology-know the five ways we classify landfroms



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