Mr. Johnston

Welcome To Our Page

Posted: May 15, 2019


Wed, Jun 12/19 8:35 am

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Canadian Identity

·        Be prepared to give a personal definition of Canadian Identity, what it includes and what it is affected by.  Feel free to include anything you have learned in this course.

·        ART= French, British, Aboriginal.  How does their art reflect Canadian identity?  What affected or influenced their art?

·        CRTC=What is it? What is its role?  Is it still relevant/needed?


Chapter 2: Canada’s Physical Geography

·        What is topography?  What are the elements of topography (elevation, relief, gradient, geology)

·        How are landforms shaped? (weathering, erosion, deposition, mountain building)

·        Eight Landform Regions = How are Canada’s geographic regions classified?  What are the 8?  Be able to place them on a map.  Be able to describe them or give a detail of each.

·        Climate = what are the Global and Regional factors that affect climate.  Global are:  latitude, air masses & winds, ocean currents; Regional are: altitude, bodies of water, mountain barriers.  Be able to explain how all these factors affect climate.

·        What are the climate regions in Canada?  A. TropicalB. Dry ClimateC. Warm, Moist D. Cool, Moist (also known as temperate continental)E. Polar


Chapter 3: Canada’s People

·        Pop.Density & Pop. Distribution:  What are each?  Be prepared to define and explain w/ reference to Canada. 

·         Population Distribution = why have we chosen to live where we have to live? (near the border, around lakes & rivers, near natural resources)

·        Site vs. Situation factors.  Define each.  Be prepared to discuss w/ real life Canadian examples. P.43 in your textbookCanadian settlement patterns = In different regions of Canada, what occurred? The regions of Atlantic Canada, New France(Quebec), Ontario, Prairies, British Columbia and the North

·        Decline of rural population – Know percentages know the dates1881 = 75% rural; 1961 = 62% urban; 2001 = 81% urban

·        Industrial revolution…what was it?  What effect would it have on pop. distribution?

·        What are the 5 political regions of Canada?  Be able to name and describe them or give details about them.  P.52 in textbook.

·        Where is the core?  What is it the core? What is the periphery and what does it provide to the core?


Chapter 4: Migration

·        Know the different ways that it is believed First Nations came to Canada.

·        Know the difference between Push & Pull factors.  Be prepared to explain or give an example that is clear and understood.

·        What is “multiculturalism”?  Has Canadian immigration always promoted a multicultural society?  If not, explain specifically how not.

·        What is the difference between Canada’s acceptance of immigrants pre-1945 and post-1945?What are the three classes of Canadian immigrants?  Be prepared to explain each.  How many immigrants does Canada accept a year?

·        What is emigration?  What is the “brain drain?”  Why should we be concerned about a brain drain?   Why shouldn’t we be concerned about a brain drain?


Chapter 5: Responses to Geographic Influences

·        Know the location of Australia.  How does it compare/contrast to Canada?

·        Know the climate zones of Australia.  How do they compare/contrast to Canada?

·        Know the landforms of Australia.  How do they compare/contrast to Canada?

·        Know Australia’s population, population density, population distribution, and land area size.  How do these compare/contrast to Canada?  


Chapter 6: Prosperity & Depression

·        What was life like in Canada post World War I?

·        Why was the Maritime economy so particularly depressed just post-WWI? (think about rail/freight costs, tariffs, lack of capital investment)

·        Be prepared to explain the importance of electricity in boosting the economy. 

·        How did lifestyles begin to change in the 1920’s?

·        Era of Prosperity = 1920’s; but not everybody enjoyed prosperity.  Who didn’t and why?  What was life like for them?

·        Tues. Oct.29th, 1929 = Black Tuesday. 

·        What were the root causes of the Depression? (this is on my webpage; for the love of God and all that is holy look it up…for your sake and my sanity) 

·        What was the Depression?  What was life like during the Depression?  Be prepared to describe it in detail. 

·        Who was Bennett?  Be prepared to discuss him and his importance/legacy.  


Chapter 7: Canada at War

·        Be prepared to explain the four phases of WWII and more specifically what Canada’s role was in each of these stages?  At war’s end, where did Canada stand in the ranks of world powers?

Posted: May 15, 2019


Wed, May 22/19 8:35 am


Chapter 8: Investigation and Arrest


Multiple Choice (15pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Matching (5pts)

Short Answer Questions (15pts)

Case Studies x 2 (5pts each)


·        Know all definitions from each of the four sections

·        Review all questions and answers that were given for each of the four sections.

Section 1: Levels of Police in Canada

·        What are the four levels of police? For where are they responsible?

·        With what type of responsibilities are each level of police force tasked? Ie: RCMP are responsible for federal policing, criminal intelligence, and customs and excise; while Provincial police are responsible for traffic control, investigative services; Municipal police are responsible for investigative services in respective cities, enforcing by-laws, and executing warrants (once again within city).

·        NOTE: generally, police force responsibilities are all very similar, its just a question of jurisdiction

·        What are the only three provinces that have their own Provincial Police force?

Section 2: Starting a Police Investigation

·        What is the difference between a centre and a perimeter?  What does contamination mean?

·        What are the 3 reasons for preserving a crime scene? 1)allow for a thorough search; 2) to seize and collect physical evidence; 3)ensure that evidence is admissible in court

·        What is a police log and why is it kept?

·        What are the four types of officers at a crime scene?  Be able to briefly describe their role or function at a crime scene.

Section 3: Identifying and Collecting Physical Evidence

·        Be able to differentiate (tell the difference) between class characteristics and individual characteristics.  You could focus on examples like tires or footprints.

·        What kind of information can be gathered from footprints at a crime scene?

·        Fingerprints: What are the three different ways to ‘lift’ latent prints?

·        Know the definitions of physical evidence and forensic science.

·        What is the most common body substance found at a crime scene? Its blood.  What other body elements may be found? How do we test them?  Police need what to compel (force) you to provice a blood/urine/breath sample? = a warrant.  When is a warrant NOT needed to get one of these samples?

·        DNA.  DNA differs for every human with what exception?

·        Differentiate between a chain of custody and labelling evidence.  Why do we have a chain of custody?  What type of information appears on an evidence label?

Section 4: Arrest and Detention

·        Can a police officer force someone to answer questions?  Why not?  What protects a suspect or individual?

·        Through what document are an individual’s rights guaranteed.

·        What is the four stage approach to interrogating a suspect? (see p.202) Be able to give examples of open-ended and close-ended questions in an interrogation.

·        What is the procedure for arresting an individual?  Be prepared to list the four steps.

·        Are you require to question someone before arresting them?

·        What is the difference between an arrest and a detention?  What is the purpose of a detention?  In order to arrest, police must have what? = reasonable grounds.  What is the meaning of reasonable grounds?

·        What are the three methods for apprehending an offender?  1)an appearance notice, 2)arrest with a warrant, 3)arrest without a warrant.  Be prepared to explain how each of the three work.  When can police arrest without a warrant?  What is an information?  To whom is it given?

·        What is a summons?  Under what circumstances is it usually issued?

·        Explain the procedure for a citizen’s arrest.  Why are they rarely done?

·        Search Warrant = what are they? when are they needed? Is there ever circumstances they are not needed?  Explain if so.

Section 5: Pre-Trial Release

·        Know the three ways that somebody may be released pre-trail: 1)promise to appear; 2)recognizance; and 3)surety.  Be able to explain any or all.

·        What is reverse onus in reference to bail?  Under what four circumstances is it applicable?


Wed, May 15/19 2:00 pm
  • Know the definitions for population density and population distribution.  If given the population and area for each province, be prepared to calculate the population density.
  • Know the difference between clustered, compact, loose-knit and inear population distribution patterns.
  • Know the difference between Urban and Rural.  Know in very basic terms what push and pull factors are.
  • Be able to look at a chart like the one on p.52 of your textbook and be able to answer questions about migration.
  • Be ready to explain why Fredericton grew as a city?  What factors made it the provincial capital?
  • Who were the First Peoples of Atlantic Canada?  (know the four groups: Innu, Algonquian Nations, The Inuit, and the Beothuk).  Know one fact about each of the four groups.  Be able to explain what the result/effect of contact with Europeans was on the First Nations (for example, looking at map on p.55 you can see FN settlements moved further inland away from Europeans AND populations became smaller)
  • The Acadians = who were they?  why did they come to North America?  where did they settle?  what happened to them?  where did they end up and why?
  • British Settlers = why did they come?  where did they settle? who were the Loyalists?  why did they come?
  • Irish = Why did they come?  where did they settle primarily?
  • Scottish = why did they come?  where did they settle primarily?
  • African Canadians = how did they get to Atlantic Canada?  where did they settle?  where did many go? what was Africville



Fri, May 10/19 9:43 am


1.      What was the difference between the 1920s and the 1930s economically?

2.      How did the end of WWI affect the Canadian economy?

3.      How was the experience of Atlantic Canada different from the rest of Canada when talking about the Roaring Twenties? hint: Look in A Stalled Economy for Others

4.      Definitions – need to know, and be able to explain, tariff, primary vs. secondary industry, installment plan

5.      What factors hampered the Maritime economy in the 1920s? (see p.88 of textbook, you’ve already answered this)

6.      What was the experience of the First Nations in the 1920s? Know the word assimilate.  Know residential schools. Know Indian Act restrictions. (all on p.92)

7.      How did electricity drive economic growth in the 1920s?  What effect did mass production have on life of the 1920s?

8.      How did women’s roles change in the 1920’s?  Look at education on p.91 and track through to Changing and Conflicting Attitudes on p.94.

9.      Definitions – know the terms stocks, share, dividend, public relief, public works and balanced budget.

10.  How did the stock market and stocks and shares help the economy to grow in the 1920s (before the Great Depression that is)?

11.  What is Black Tuesday?  When and why did the stock market crash? Answer – Thurs. Oct.24th – Tues.Oct.29th,  1929 because share prices started to fall and became worth less money.  People panicked, tried to get their money out of stocks, this caused them to crash/fall faster.  Without confidence in the market by investors, the market crashed.

12.  What are the root causes of the Depression? Answer - With easy and available credit, people bought and sold more goods.  Credit was even being used to buy stocks.  Everybody believed the good times would not end, so they spent money freely.  Canada’s economy was closely tied to that of the US.  As their economy slowed, so did ours.  In Canada, we relied on trade to foreign countries for growth and by 1932 this dropped by 50%.

13.  Describe the difficult conditions of the Depression – hint: look to “Social Conditions” and “Hard Times Across the Country” in your notes as two sources.

14.  What were the new political parties created out of the Depression?  Why might they be considered only regional parties?  What ideas did each of them offer and why would these ideas have been attractive to Canadians?

15.  Explain the significance of terms like “Bennett buggie,” “eggs Bennett,” “Bennett blanket,” and “Bennett coffee.”  What does this tell us about Canadian’s perceptions of R.B. Bennett.

16.  What was the trend of the unemployment rate in Canada over the course of the late 1920s and 1930s? 

17.      From what we have studied, explain why this chapter is titled what it is?

Posted: April 24, 2019


Wed, May 1/19 8:35 am


Multiple Choice (20pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (8pts)

Short Answer (12pts)

Essay (10pts)

Case Study (5pts)


1)  Name the three courts in our federal court system established by the federal government. 

2)  Differentiate between summary conviction offences and indictable offences. 

3)  Explain what a preliminary inquiry is and identify its purpose. In your answer, include the court in which it would be held. 

4)  What are the two fundamental principles that guide Canada's criminal justice system? 

5)  Identify the three main roles that a judge plays in our court system.   

6)  Explain how the role of defence counsel differs when the accused enters a plea of guilty, as opposed to not guilty.  

7)  Define the term "evidence" and identify what may constitute evidence in trial proceedings. 

8)  What does "challenge for cause" mean in jury selection? When does it occur? 

9)  When can a motion for dismissal be brought up at trial?  

10)  What is meant by the term "leading question"? Provide an example. 


11)  Outline the provincial court structure of the province in which you live. Provide a detailed description of the function of each of the courts. 

12)  In the order of their occurrence, describe the stages of a criminal trial from opening statements through to sentencing. 

13)  Explain why you think there is a deliberate attempt to retain the ceremony, traditions, and customs of the past. Can you think of any advantages? Disadvantages? 

14)  Comment on the following statement: " Canada's court systems are a perfect blend of the protection of the rights of the individual and the rights of society. "  

15)  Describe the way(s) in which you think the court system in your province could be improved. Your answer should reflect knowledge of the current structure and workings of the court system. 







Posted: April 15, 2019

On Friday, April 12th, students began a lesson on persuasive writing. They had to rank 14 topics saying whether they strongly agreed, mildly agreed, neither agreed nor disagree, mildly disagreed or strongly disagreed. This was an effort to get them to identify topics for which they felt strongly and would likely have a number of ideas to support one way or another.

Today, we began writing Introductions to their selected topic. Introductions could be done in one of three ways: a question, an opinion, or a lead. Students are to have three separate opening paragraphs completed for tomorrow representing each of those styles. Below is a sample of all three given using Topic #14: Smoking should be against the law.


1.       Question




Have you ever…


Do you know…


Can you…


Did you know that last year 45,000 people died from smoking related illnesses? Smoking is not only dangerous to the smoker but it is dangerous to others as well. Treating these diseases and illnesses in hospitals costs governments and taxpayers in Canada millions of dollars a year. This is why smoking should be against the law.




2.       Opinion




I believe…


I think…


I feel that…


I believe that there is nothing more disgusting than a habit that leaves its participants hacking and wheezing and litters the environment with cigarette butts. It boggles my mind why someone would choose to do something that has the potential to kill them. Not only that, but they choose to pay huge amounts of money to risk their lives and the lives of those around them. I truly think that smoking should be banned and made illegal




3.       Lead




Let me tell…


Listen closely…


I will…


Let me tell you about a problem plaguing our society. A problem that costs our government millions of dollars a year and kills thousands and thousands of people. This is a problem that people willing choose to bring upon themselves and one which they should be protected from. Smoking is a problem not only for those who choose to partake in it but for all of society. For the benefit of smokers and for the benefit of all Canadians, smoking should be made to be against the law.


Posted: April 9, 2019


Tue, Apr 16/19 9:42 am

Chapter 5: Responses to Geographic Influences

Test Review

  • What is Australia’s general location in the world?  Southern hemisphere, eastern hemisphere.   South of the equator but not so much that it would experience cold climates like in Canada.

  • Know, and be able to name, all 5 landform regions of Australia.  Be able to draw similarities between these regions and Canada’s regions. ie: Eastern Uplands are ancient fold mountains like the Appalachian region in Canada. OR Western Craton is ancient shield rock similar to the Canadian (Precambrian) Shield.

  • What is the population of Australia?  How does it compare to Canada?  What is pop.density of Australia? (2.6people/km2) and how does this compare to Canada?

  • What is the population distribution of Australia?

  • Be prepared to name the 3 climate zones of Australia and tell me where they are located within the country.  How do these zones compare to Canada?  Are there ones they have that we do not?  Are there ones we have that they do not?

  • When did Europeans first arrive in Australia? What kind of people first arrived in Australia?  Who was there before they arrived?

  • Be able to describe life for Australia’s aborigines pre-contact with Europeans.

  • Be prepared to compare/contrast Australian Aborigines experience w/ Europeans to North American natives experience with Europeans

  • What was the White Australia Policy?  How does this compare to Canadian immigration practices of the past?

Posted: April 9, 2019


Fri, Apr 12/19 2:00 pm

Chapter 3

Know all definitions related to climate

Why does snow form?How do snowstorms happen?What places get more snow?  Why?

Why do we have wind?  What happens to air at north pole?  What happens to air at the equator?

Be able to read climographs and get information from them concerning precipitation and temperature.  Also need to be able to draw conclusions about what the climate is normally like in that area.  Be able to compare two climographs to discuss differences in climate.

What effect does latitude have on temperature and weather?

Be able to explain the three different air masses and what kind of weather is brought by each.Know what a front is (a large volume of air with similar temp. and moisture conditions).

Know what happens when ocean currents meet.What is the effect on weather and climate of being next to water?

What is the effect on weather and climate of elevation.

Know what a meteorological technician does and why they might be important to certain industries.

Be able to read data from a radiosonde chart.

Know the three ways that we examine weather: from land & sea, from the air, from space.  Know the tools that are associated with each.


Mon, Apr 15/19 8:35 am


Multiple Choice (15pts)

True & False (8pts)

Fill-in-the-blanks (10pts)

Short Answer Questions (17pts)

Case Study (4pts)

Short Answer Samples
1)  According to Parliament, what kind of behaviour constitutes a crime?

2)  Provide an example of an act of omission that could result in criminal charges being brought against the perpetrator.

3)  Identify the main purposes of the criminal law.

4)  Name three crime prevention programs that have been developed over the years.

5)  The Criminal Code of Canada is amended from time to time. Identify three reasons why this is necessary.

6)  Define and explain the two essential elements of most criminal offences.

7)  Outline the three different types of mens rea.

8)  What is the difference between motive and intention?

9)  Describe the defence of due diligence. For what type of offence(s) can it be used? Include an example in your answer.

10)  Why are general intent offences easier to prove than specific intent offences?



Mon, Apr 8/19 9:42 am

Chapter 3: Canada’s People

  • Know all your definitions (they are the bolded/italicized words in notes)

  • What is population distribution vs. population density?  Be prepared to explain.

  • Population of Canada? Pop.Density of Canada?

  • What is the difference between site and situation factors?  Be able explain and give examples of each.

  • Why did settlements begin where they did in each of the regions of Canada (see 2 bullets below for regions)?

  • What is the difference between urban and rural?  Where do most of Canada’s pop. live?  How has it changed over time?

  • What are Canada’s five regions? Atlantic, Central, The Prairies, British Columbia, the North. (p.52 in textbook)

  • What are the physical/cultural attributes of each?  What are the political/economical attributes of each?  (p.52 in textbook)

  • What is the core vs. peripherary?  What happens in each?  Where is the core of Canada?  Why is it the core?


Chapter 4: Migration: People on the Move

  • Push vs. Pull factors:  What are they?  Examples of each?  How have they affected Canadian immigration

  • First Nations: When did they get here?  What are the theories about their arrival?

  • Who controls immigration? The Federal gov’t does

  • Know what a melting pot is vs. a multicultural mosaic.

  • How has our policy of immigration changed over time?  Look at examples of where we have not been accepting of different groups.

  • What is the difference between an immigrant and a refugee?

  • How many immigrants should Canada accept?  How many refugees should Canada accept?  Be prepared to argue both of these questions (good points can be found on p.66 of textbook)

  • Know the idea of emigration (the idea of leaving a country).  With this, know the concept of the “brain drain.”  Is this something we should be worried about?  Why or why not? (p.70 in textbook)


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