Mr. Johnston

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Posted: November 7, 2016


Mon, Nov 14/16 9:40 am

Chapter 3: Canada’s People

  • Know all your definitions (they are the bolded/italicized words in notes)

·       What is population distribution vs. population density?  Be prepared to explain.

·       Population of Canada? Pop.Density of Canada?

·       What is the difference between site and situation factors?  Be able explain and give examples of each.

·       Why did settlements begin where they did in each of the regions of Canada (see 2 bullets below for regions)?

·       What is the difference between urban and rural?  Where do most of Canada’s pop. live?  How has it changed over time?

·       What are Canada’s five regions? Atlantic, Central, The Prairies, British Columbia, the North. (p.52 in textbook)

·       What are the physical/cultural attributes of each?  What are the political/economical attributes of each?  (p.52 in textbook)

·       What is the core vs. peripherary?  What happens in each?  Where is the core of Canada?  Why is it the core?

Chapter 4: Migration: People on the Move

·       Push vs. Pull factors è What are they?  Examples of each?  How have they affected Canadian immigration

·       First Nations è When did they get here?  What are the theories about their arrival?

·       Who controls immigration? The Federal gov’t does

·       Know what a melting pot is vs. a multicultural mosaic

.·       How has our policy of immigration changed over time?  Look at examples of where we have not been accepting of different groups.

·       What is the difference between an immigrant and a refugee?

·       How many immigrants should Canada accept?  How many refugees should Canada accept?  Be prepared to argue both of these questions (good points can be found on p.66 of textbook)

·       Know the idea of emigration (the idea of leaving a country).  With this, know the concept of the “brain drain.”  Is this something we should be worried about?  Why or why not? (p.70 in textbook)

Posted: October 19, 2016


R. v. Hydro-Quebec, [1997] 3.S.C.R. 213  found on p.72


R. v. Crown Zellerbach Canada Ltd., [1988] 1 S.C.R. 401  found on p.73

Both cases were discussed in class on Wednesday, October 19th.  Particular points were made to pay attention to rubric (found on this website under documents) and to reference the legal/social/historical significance of the case AND to ensure you explain the decision arrived at in the case.  All of this is expected while still analysing the case using the guiding questions provided.

Due Date: 

Tuesday, October 25, 2016


Wed, Oct 26/16 11:03 am

Format of the Test

Multiple Choice (20pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Short Answer (14pts)

Essay (5pts)


Sample Short Answer Questions

 1)  Give three reasons why law making is such a difficult task.

(1) laws must be able to meet both the legal challenges and the approval of most citizens;

(2) laws must be enforceable;

(3) laws should balance frequently competing interests.

 2)  Use examples to demonstrate your understanding of the terms intra vires and ultra vires. 

Answers could vary. (e.g., It would be ultra vires the federal Parliament to pass laws that relate to labour and trade unions, however, it would be intra vires if the laws pertained to employment insurance.)

 3)  Identify the two systems of government that Canada was considering at the time of Confederation and explain how they differ.

(1) a unitary system where power is concentrated in one parliament with a Prime Minister, and

(2) a federal system where power is divided between two levels of government: the central (federal) government to look after national interests, and provincial governments that govern on more regional matters.

 4)  What is the purpose of lobby groups? Provide an example.

Lobby groups consist of people who try to influence legislators to pass laws that would favour their cause. Examples will vary, but may include MADD, the Coalition for Gun Control, and LEAF.

 5)  Explain what the following means: "... the distribution of legislative powers was intended to be exhaustive".

 Section 91 of the BNA Act granted legislative control to the federal government in certain designated areas. Section 92 gave the provinces other enumerated heads of power. In addition, the opening words of s. 91 conferred residual powers on the federal government authorizing them to make laws for the "Peace, Order, and Good Government of Canada" (i.e., giving all unassigned areas of law-making to the federal government.) This had the effect of ensuring that every conceivable subject of legislation was assigned to one level of government or the other. 

 6)  Outline the problems that exist with the BNA Act with respect to jurisdictional authority over resources.

Some resources, such as fisheries, are under the jurisdiction of the federal government and others, such as timber and wood, are under provincial control. Therefore, disputes arise over which level of government would have control over other resources such as oil and natural gas. The BNA Act is silent with respect to these resources, since its drafters could not possibly have had them within their contemplation in 1867.

 7)  What obstacle to patriating the Constitution was presented at the Saskatchewan First Minister's Conference in 1982?

Quebec's premier, Renaccent(e) Laccent(e)vesque, was not prepared to support patriation until Quebec was assured of greater economic and cultural powers under the new Constitution.

 8)  Describe the four key components added to Canada's Constitution under the Constitution Act, (1982).

(1) A principle regarding the equalization of services across Canada;

(2) a clearer interpretation of jurisdiction over natural resources;

(3) a formula to clarify how amendments would be made;

(4) a charter guaranteeing individual rights and freedoms was included.

 9)  Identify two reasons why the Charlottetown Accord did not receive unanimous support throughout the country.

(1) Quebec felt the Accord did not give them enough power, but other provinces believed it gave them too much power, and, (2) Aboriginal self-government clauses were of concern to provinces like Quebec 

 10)  What is the primary purpose of Royal Commissions?

Their role is to conduct impartial investigations into specific national problems. They may indicate that new laws are necessary in order to remedy the situation.

Posted: October 3, 2016

Complete an analysis for either of the two following cases found on pp.49 & 50 respectively:

1. Spain v. Canada (1998), Fisheries Jurisdiction (I.C.J), on-line <>


2. Mazuelos v. Clark (2000), B.C.H.R.T.I.  

Due Date: 

Tuesday, October 11, 2016

Posted: September 30, 2016


Wed, Oct 12/16 11:03 am


Multiple Choice (15pts)

True & False (7pts)

Fill-in-the-blank (10pts)

Matching (5pts)

Short Answer (10pts)

Case Study (5pts)


1)  What happens to a law if it is found to be inconsistent with the Constitution?

It is struck down by the courts and considered to be invalid on the grounds that it is "unconstitutional".


2)  Explain the legal principle of stare decisis.

Judges apply decisions made by other courts when determining the outcome of similar cases.



3)  Why is it necessary that judges be able to "distinguish" circumstances when deciding common law cases? 

The applicable precedent may be out-of-date or involve new or unique technology not covered by case law.


4)  In what way are Indian Bands similar to local governments?

Indian Bands are entitled to enact bylaws to deal with local Band issues.



5)  Identify three major functions of Canada's constitution.

(a) It determines the structure of the federal government.

(b) It divides law-making powers between the federal and provincial governments.

(c) It limits the powers of government by setting out certain basic laws, principles, and standards that all other law must adhere to.


6)  How can international law exist when there is no global law-making body in existence?

Laws exist between nations as a matter of custom. Custom means consistent and general practice among states and the acceptance of this practice as law by the international community. In addition, treaties and agreements between nations are considered as legally binding as any law.


7)  Define domestic law.

Law that is made and enforced within a nation's borders. It includes both case law and statute law.



8)  Identify the three branches of law that make up public law. Provide a brief description of each.

(1) constitutional law: a body of law that deals with the distribution and exercise of government powers;

(2) administrative law: law related to the relationship between people and government departments, boards, and agencies;

(3) criminal law: law that identifies crimes and prescribes punishment.



9)  What is the purpose of the criminal law?

The criminal law is designed to protect the public and prohibit and punish behaviours deemed unacceptable by Parliament. 



10)  Why are criminal charges brought against the accused in the name of the Queen?


Criminal acts are not seen as being limited to the immediate victim. Rather, there are considered to be against society as a whole. Consequently, charges are brought against the accused in the name of the Queen because the monarch is the ultimate representative of Canadian society. 

Posted: September 15, 2016


Wed, Sep 21/16 9:43 am

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Canadian IdentityBelow are a list of possible topics/questions that may appear on the test.  By no means are they guaranteed or is this list everything that may appear.  Students are responsible for all things discussed/completed in class and all material covered in Chapter 1. 

-What is Canadian Identity?  How would you define your own identity?

-5 Factors that influence identity = p.2(purple section)

-Canadian symbols = be prepared to draw or name

-art forms = notes & pp.5-9

-First Nations art = notes or p.5

-French Art = notes or p.6

-British Art = notes or p.6

-What is the CRTC? = notes or p.10

-Vocabulary-Analyze song lyrics(will be given lyrics for a song played in class) for aspects of Canadian identity. 

Posted: September 13, 2016

Assignment A

Write a letter (~one page) in which you answer the following questions:

  • What does the term “Canadian Literary texts” mean to you?

  • How is it different than, say, British and American literature?  What characteristics does it possess that make it distinctively unique?

Assignment B

Write a one page response to the videos which depict or show Canadian identity.  The videos were:

Your response could include such things as, “What does it mean to you to be Canadian?”; “why are we so obsessed with how the rest of the world sees us or thinks of us?”; “Why doesn’t the world know more about us?”; “Why do so many stereotypes exist of Canadians?”

Posted: May 31, 2016


Thu, Jun 2/16 10:50 am

Chapter 5: What is Culture? Test Review

·Be able to give a definition of culture and explain the different elements that make up culture.

·What is the difference between a genetic trait and a cultural trait?

·Know what an anthropologist is.

·What are the common characteristics that are found in all cultures according to George P. Murdock? (p.68 in textbook)

·Be able to list/describe what physical needs and emotional needs are.  Also, if given a scenario like on p.70, be ready to describe what needs are being met by that situation.

·What is the difference between material and non-material culture?  What category do values fit in?  Be ready to divide a list AND explain why you did so of cultural characteristics into material and non-material.

·What is traditional culture vs. popular culture?  Explain from where we get popular culture.  How can popular culture sometimes come into conflict or tension with our traditional culture? (eg: for First Nations, it would be popular culture to speak English but many homes still try to promote their First Nations language)

·What is an agent of socialization?  It is an institution or organization which passes culture onto the next generation.  Be prepared to list a few agents of socialization and explain how they pass on culture.

·What are three methods for resolving conflict?  Why do you think we studied those in a chapter called “What is Culture?”  

Posted: May 30, 2016


Wed, Jun 15/16 8:35 am

Chapter 1: An Introduction to Canadian Identity

  • Be prepared to give a personal definition of Canadian Identity, what it includes and what it is affected by.  Feel free to include anything you have learned in this course.

  • ART= French, British, Aboriginal.  How does their art reflect Canadian identity?  What affected or influenced their art?

  • CRTC=What is it? What is its role?  Is it still relevant/needed?

Chapter 2: Canada’s Physical Geography

  • What is topography?  What are the elements of topography (elevation, relief, gradient, geology)

  • How are landforms shaped? (weathering, erosion, deposition, mountain building)

  • Eight Landform Regions = How are Canada’s geographic regions classified?  What are the 8?  Be able to place them on a map.  Be able to describe them or give a detail of each.

  • Climate = what are the Global and Regional factors that effect climate.  Global are:  latitude, air masses & winds, ocean currents; Regional are: altitude, bodies of water, mountain barriers.  Be able to explain how all these factors affect climate.

  • What are the climate regions in Canada? 

    • A. Tropical

    • B. Dry Climate

    • C. Warm, Moist

    • D. Cool, Moist (also known as temperate continental)

    • E. Polar

Chapter 3: Canada’s People

  • Pop.Density & Pop. Distribution:  What are each?  Be prepared to define and explain w/ reference to Canada.  Population Distribution = why have we chosen to live where we have to live? (near the border, around lakes & rivers, near natural resources)

  • Site vs. Situation factors.  Define each.  Be prepared to discuss w/ real life Canadian examples. P.43 in your textbook

  • Canadian settlement patterns = In different regions of Canada, what occurred? The regions of Atlantic Canada, New France(Quebec), Ontario, Prairies, British Columbia and the North

  • Decline of rural population –

    • Know percentages know the dates

      • 1881 = 75% rural

      • 1961 = 62% urban

      • 2001 = 81% urban

    • Industrial revolution…what was it?  What effect would it have on pop. distribution?

  • What are the 5 political regions of Canada?  Be able to name and describe them or give details about them.  P.52 in textbook.

  • Where is the core?  What is it the core?

Chapter 4: Migration

  • Know the different ways that it is believed First Nations came to Canada.

  • Know the difference between Push & Pull factors.  Be prepared to explain or give an example that is clear and understood.

  • What is “multiculturalism”?  Has Canadian immigration always promoted a multicultural society?  If not, explain specifically how not.

  • What is the difference between Canada’s acceptance of immigrants pre-1945 and post-1945?

  • What are the three classes of Canadian immigrants?  Be prepared to explain each.  How many immigrants does Canada accept a year?

  • What is emigration?  What is the “brain drain?”  Why should we be concerned about a brain drain?   Why shouldn’t we be concerned about a brain drain?

Chapter 5: Responses to Geographic Influences

  • Know the location of Australia.  How does it compare/contrast to Canada?

  • Know the climate zones of Australia.  How do they compare/contrast to Canada?

  • Know the landforms of Australia.  How do they compare/contrast to Canada?

  • Know Australia’s population, population density, population distribution, and land area size.  How do these compare/contrast to Canada?

Chapter 6: Prosperity & Depression

  • What was life like in Canada post World War I?

  • Why was the Maritime economy so particularly depressed just post-WWI? (think about rail/freight costs, tariffs, lack of capital investment)

  • Be prepared to explain the importance of electricity in boosting the economy.  How did lifestyles begin to change in the 1920’s?

  • Era of Prosperity = 1920’s; but not everybody enjoyed prosperity.  Who didn’t and why?  What was life like for them?

  • Tues. Oct.29th, 1929 = Black Tuesday.  What were the root causes of the Depression? (this is on my webpage; for the love of God and all that is holy look it up…for your sake and my sanity)  What was the Depression?

  • What was life like during the Depression?  Be prepared to describe it in detail.

  • Who was Bennett?  Be prepared to discuss him and his importance/legacy.

Chapter 7: Canada at War

  • Be prepared to explain the four phases of WWII and more specifically what Canada’s role was in each of these stages?

  • At war’s end, where did Canada stand in the ranks of world powers?


Posted: May 29, 2016


Tue, Jun 7/16 9:40 am


Chapter 7: Canada at War

  • What are the general dates of the war?  Beginning à End = September of 1939 to May/August of 1945.  Different countries ‘started’ the war at different times; Canada came in Sept.10th, 1939.  Victory in Europe was May 8th, 1945 and Victory in Japan was August 15th, 1945

  • What is generally accepted as the cause of WWII? = Generally believed that the punishing conditions of the Treaty of Versailles caused the War.  It took away land from Germany after WWI and forced it to pay reparations.  Resentment existed and Germany elected a leader who promised he would rip up the Treaty of Versailles.

  • What are reparations? =

  • What is appeasement? =

  • What is conscription? =

  • What are the four phases of the war?  Dates for these?  What was going on in general at this time and what was Canada doing specifically?

    • Phase I = “The Phony War” Sept. ’39 – Jun. ‘40

    • Phase II = begins badly for Allies but by its end it was a question of when not IF they would win.  Jun. ’40 – Jul. ‘43

    • Phase III = Allies on the offensive on all fronts. Jul. ’43 – Jun. ‘44

    • Phase IV = the final phase, the final push. Starts w/ D-Day and landing at beaches in Normandy. Jun. ’44 – Sept.’45

  • Who were the Allies?  Who were the Axis powers? = Allies were Britain, France, Canada, and eventually United States and Soviet Union.  Axis powers were Germany, Italy, and Japan.

  • What was Canada’s role early on in the war?  How did this role change over time?  What caused the change?

  • Explain the significance of the following battles to the war:

    • El Alemein

    • Pearl Harbour

    • Midway

    • Stalingrad

    • Dieppe

    • D-Day Invasion

  • What was the Manhattan project?  What did it create?  What was done with that creation?  Who was involved in the Manhattan project?

  • Atomic Bombs: Where were they dropped?  How many were killed by the initial blast?  How many were killed by the radiation in the months after?  Why were these bombings controversial?

  • What is a genocide? =

  • What was the Holocaust? =

  • How many Jews were killed in the Holocaust?  Were they the only target?  Where were these people killed?  What were these camps called?  What were some of the names of the camps?

Propaganda Posters = Be prepared to interpret and analyze one.  I will be picking one of the posters from the War Museum’s webpage.