Mr. Johnston

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Posted: November 6, 2017

The Fifth Estate: Murder in the Family

It was called the trial of the century in New Brunswick - - a confluence of celebrity, money and murder. Richard Oland of the Moosehead brewing family -- one of the richest, most powerful men in the region – was dead, bludgeoned in his office. Charged and convicted with the brutal killing, the victim’s son, Dennis Oland. Last week, Dennis Oland was sentenced to life in prison with no chance of parole for 10 years in the 2011 killing.

Posted: October 31, 2017


Fri, Nov 3/17 2:00 pm


  • Know the difference between weather & climate.
  • Be able to name and explain the following three air masses that affect Atlantic Canada:Continental Arctic, Maritime TropicalMaritime Polar
  • Know the difference between a high pressure area and a low pressure area
  • Meteorological Technician --> what are they?  where are some of the places they work? what do they do in the different places they work and why are they needed there?
  • Know the effects that the following have on weather: Latitude, Air Masses, Ocean Currents, Proximity to Water and Elevation
  • SNOW: What is a snowstorm?  What causes them to happen?  What places get more snow and why? What factors are essential in the creation of a snowstorm?
  • Examining weather: what are the three ways and what tools are used at each?Land & Sea - wind guages, sunshine recorder, Stevenson screens for max. & min temps, thermometersFrom the Air - radar, radiosondeFrom Space - satellites
  • WIND --> What causes wind?(refer back to high and low pressure notes)  What happens to air at the North Pole?  What happens to air at the equator?
  • CLIMOGRAPHS --> practice reading them and know that the line is temperature and the bars are precipitation.  Be sure to read data off of the correct side of graph.  Know that large ranges in temp. suggest a continental climate and low ranges suggest a maritime climate.  Lots of precip. means maritime and little precip suggests continental.

Posted: October 31, 2017


Tue, Nov 7/17 12:48 pm

Chapter 5: Responses to Geographic Influences

Test Review

  • What is Australia’s general location in the world?  Southern hemisphere, eastern hemisphere.   South of the equator but not so much that it would experience cold climates like in Canada.

  • Know, and be able to name, all 5 landform regions of Australia.  Be able to draw similarities between these regions and Canada’s regions. ie: Eastern Uplands are ancient fold mountains like the Appalachian region in Canada. OR Western Craton is ancient shield rock similar to the Canadian (Precambrian) Shield.

  • What is the population of Australia?  How does it compare to Canada?  What is pop.density of Australia? (2.6people/km2) and how does this compare to Canada?

  • What is the population distribution of Australia?

  • Be prepared to name the 3 climate zones of Australia and tell me where they are located within the country.  How do these zones compare to Canada?  Are there ones they have that we do not?  Are there ones we have that they do not?

  • When did Europeans first arrive in Australia? What kind of people first arrived in Australia?  Who was there before they arrived?

  • Be able to describe life for Australia’s aborigines pre-contact with Europeans.

  • Be prepared to compare/contrast Australian Aborigines experience w/ Europeans to North American natives experience with Europeans

  • What was the White Australia Policy?  How does this compare to Canadian immigration practices of the past?

  • What are artesian wells and aquifers and why are they important to the economy of Australia?


Thu, Nov 2/17 9:43 am

Format of Test

Multiple Choice (15pts)

True/False (8pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Short Answer Question (17pts)

Case Study (4pts)




1)  According to Parliament, what kind of behaviour constitutes a crime?


A crime is any act or omission of an act that is prohibited and punishable by federal statute.




2)  Provide an example of an act of omission that could result in criminal charges being brought against the perpetrator.


(a) failing to provide assistance to a police officer when requested to do so;


(b) failing to provide the necessities of life to your children, and


(c) failing to stop at the scene of an accident in which you were involved




3)  Identify the main purposes of the criminal law.


(a) to protect people and property;


(b) to maintain order, and


(c) to preserve standards of public decency 




4)  Name three crime prevention programs that have been developed over the years.


(1) Crime Stoppers;


(2) Neighbourhood Watch, and


(3) Block Parents




5)  The Criminal Code of Canada is amended from time to time. Identify three reasons why this is necessary.


(1) Criminal laws are changed to reflect changing societal values;


(2) advances in technology also create the need for developing new laws, and


(3) outdated laws are revisited or repealed.




6)  Define and explain the two essential elements of most criminal offences.


(1) actus reus: "guilty act"; the voluntary action, omission, or state of being  that is forbidden by the criminal law, and


(2)  mens rea: "guilty mind"; a blameworthy state of mind. The accused committed the act with intent, or was reckless as to the consequences.




7)  Outline the three different types of mens rea.


(1) intent: the accused appreciates the nature and consequences of his  actions and actively seeks to achieve them, or he chooses to act in circumstances where the consequences are a virtual certainty without necessarily desiring the end result.


(2) recklessness: the accused should have foreseen the consequences of his actions; he consciously took an unjustifiable risk that a reasonable person would not take.


(3) knowledge: the accused has knowledge of certain facts or circumstances that will allow the Crown to attribute mens rea to the accused.




8)  What is the difference between motive and intention?


Motive is a person's reason for committing a crime, whereas intention relates to a person's state of mind and willingness to break the law.




9)  Describe the defence of due diligence. For what type of offence(s) can it be used? Include an example in your answer.


due diligence: where the accused took every reasonable precaution to avoid committing a particular offence. It can be used as a defence against strict liability offences.  




10)  Why are general intent offences easier to prove than specific intent offences?


They are easier to prove because there is no subjective element to a general intent crime. The Crown is allowed to infer that everyone intends the natural consequences of their actions. However, this is not sufficient for specific intent crimes. In this instance, the Crown must prove that the accused deliberately acted in a way that would bring about a specific result. 










Posted: October 16, 2017


Fri, Oct 20/17 2:00 am

- Vocabulary: scale, mountain, lake, fjord, pond, bay, gulf, wetlands, marshes, bogs

-know all time zones of Canada by name and be able to calculate time difference from any one of them to New Brunswick (AST) time or vice versa

- Who invented standard time (ST) and what was the reasoning/story behind it?

- Be able to name the 5 regions of Canada and know them in order of size from largest to smallest (ie: the Northern Region, the Central Region, the Prairie Region, the Pacific Region, and the Atlantic Region)

-Know the size of Canada in square kilometres and where we rank in the world

- Be able to read a relief map for information

-Be able to construct a scale to measure distance between two points on a map if given a piece of paper and a map with a legend

-Familiarize yourself with the Venn diagrams comparing Fens and Bogs, Bays and Gulfs, Ponds and Lakes


Posted: October 16, 2017


Wed, Oct 25/17 12:48 pm

Chapter 3: Canada’s People

  • Know all your definitions (they are the bolded/italicized words in notes)

  • What is population distribution vs. population density?  Be prepared to explain.

  • Population of Canada? Pop.Density of Canada?

  • What is the difference between site and situation factors?  Be able explain and give examples of each.

  • Why did settlements begin where they did in each of the regions of Canada (see 2 bullets below for regions)?

  • What is the difference between urban and rural?  Where do most of Canada’s pop. live?  How has it changed over time?

  • What are Canada’s five regions? Atlantic, Central, The Prairies, British Columbia, the North. (p.52 in textbook)

  • What are the physical/cultural attributes of each?  What are the political/economical attributes of each?  (p.52 in textbook)

  • What is the core vs. peripherary?  What happens in each?  Where is the core of Canada?  Why is it the core?


Chapter 4: Migration: People on the Move

  • Push vs. Pull factors:  What are they?  Examples of each?  How have they affected Canadian immigration

  • First Nations: When did they get here?  What are the theories about their arrival?

  • Who controls immigration? The Federal gov’t does

  • Know what a melting pot is vs. a multicultural mosaic.

  • How has our policy of immigration changed over time?  Look at examples of where we have not been accepting of different groups.

  • What is the difference between an immigrant and a refugee?

  • How many immigrants should Canada accept?  How many refugees should Canada accept?  Be prepared to argue both of these questions (good points can be found on p.66 of textbook)

  • Know the idea of emigration (the idea of leaving a country).  With this, know the concept of the “brain drain.”  Is this something we should be worried about?  Why or why not? (p.70 in textbook)

Posted: October 5, 2017


Tue, Oct 17/17 9:49 am


Format of the Test

Multiple Choice (20pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Short Answer (14pts)

Essay (5pts)


Sample Short Answer Questions

 1)  Give three reasons why law making is such a difficult task.

(1) laws must be able to meet both the legal challenges and the approval of most citizens;

(2) laws must be enforceable;

(3) laws should balance frequently competing interests.

 2)  Use examples to demonstrate your understanding of the terms intra vires and ultra vires. 

Answers could vary. (e.g., It would be ultra vires the federal Parliament to pass laws that relate to labour and trade unions, however, it would be intra vires if the laws pertained to employment insurance.)

 3)  Identify the two systems of government that Canada was considering at the time of Confederation and explain how they differ.

(1) a unitary system where power is concentrated in one parliament with a Prime Minister, and

(2) a federal system where power is divided between two levels of government: the central (federal) government to look after national interests, and provincial governments that govern on more regional matters.

 4)  What is the purpose of lobby groups? Provide an example.

Lobby groups consist of people who try to influence legislators to pass laws that would favour their cause. Examples will vary, but may include MADD, the Coalition for Gun Control, and LEAF.

 5)  Explain what the following means: "... the distribution of legislative powers was intended to be exhaustive".

 Section 91 of the BNA Act granted legislative control to the federal government in certain designated areas. Section 92 gave the provinces other enumerated heads of power. In addition, the opening words of s. 91 conferred residual powers on the federal government authorizing them to make laws for the "Peace, Order, and Good Government of Canada" (i.e., giving all unassigned areas of law-making to the federal government.) This had the effect of ensuring that every conceivable subject of legislation was assigned to one level of government or the other. 

 6)  Outline the problems that exist with the BNA Act with respect to jurisdictional authority over resources.

Some resources, such as fisheries, are under the jurisdiction of the federal government and others, such as timber and wood, are under provincial control. Therefore, disputes arise over which level of government would have control over other resources such as oil and natural gas. The BNA Act is silent with respect to these resources, since its drafters could not possibly have had them within their contemplation in 1867.

 7)  What obstacle to patriating the Constitution was presented at the Saskatchewan First Minister's Conference in 1982?

Quebec's premier, Renaccent(e) Laccent(e)vesque, was not prepared to support patriation until Quebec was assured of greater economic and cultural powers under the new Constitution.

 8)  Describe the four key components added to Canada's Constitution under the Constitution Act, (1982).

(1) A principle regarding the equalization of services across Canada;

(2) a clearer interpretation of jurisdiction over natural resources;

(3) a formula to clarify how amendments would be made;

(4) a charter guaranteeing individual rights and freedoms was included.

 9)  Identify two reasons why the Charlottetown Accord did not receive unanimous support throughout the country.

(1) Quebec felt the Accord did not give them enough power, but other provinces believed it gave them too much power, and, (2) Aboriginal self-government clauses were of concern to provinces like Quebec 

 10)  What is the primary purpose of Royal Commissions?

Their role is to conduct impartial investigations into specific national problems. They may indicate that new laws are necessary in order to remedy the situation.




A.  Describe the law-making process. Provide an explanation of what occurs at each stage in the passage of a federal bill. 


B. Using historical references (significant events, dates, etc.) describe the evolution of Canadian legal autonomy from 1867 to 1982.




Posted: September 25, 2017


Mon, Oct 2/17 9:40 am


Multiple Choice (13 pts)

True/False (7 pts)

Fill-in-the-Blanks (10pts)

Matching (5 pts)

Short Answer (12 pts)

Case Study (5pts)


SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
1)  What happens to a law if it is found to be inconsistent with the Constitution?

2)  Explain the legal principle of stare decisis.

3)  Why is it necessary that judges be able to "distinguish" circumstances when deciding common law cases? 

4)  In what way are Indian Bands similar to local governments?

5)  Identify three major functions of Canada's constitution.

6)  How can international law exist when there is no global law-making body in existence?

7)  Define domestic law.

8)  Identify the three branches of law that make up public law. Provide a brief description of each.

9)  What is the purpose of the criminal law?

10)  Why are criminal charges brought against the accused in the name of the Queen?

Posted: September 21, 2017


Thu, Sep 28/17 12:48 pm


Canada's eight landforms; Western Cordillera, Interior Plains, Canadian Shield, Appalachian Highlands, Hudson Bay Lowlands, St. Lawrence -Great Lake Lowlands, Innuitian Mountains, Arctic Lowlands.  Check your textbook for information on these regions


-You will be expected to know and describe any of the landforms physical features.


-Need to know the five different types of climate: A)Tropical Climate, B)Dry Climate, C)Warm, Moist Climate; D)Continental Temperate (cool, moist), Moist Climate; E)Polar Climate


-Need to know where these climates are found in Canada; which one is not present in Canada.


-Weather: We learned that weather is affected by Global AND Regional elements.  Be prepared to name and describe the factors under each of these categories which affect weather  


-know the the following theories, names, and concepts associated with earth's formation: continental drift, plate tectonics, Alfred Wegener, layers of the earth,


-know the four ways we describe topography = elevation, relief, gradient, geology


-know the five ways we classify landfroms




Posted: September 12, 2017


Wed, Sep 20/17 9:43 am

FORMAT (50pts)

Multiple Choice (15pts)

True or False (8pts)

Matching (5pts)

Short Answer Questions (12pts)

Case Study (10pts)


Sample Short Answer Questions

1)  Identify two principal differences between laws and rules. 

2)  Describe the three main components that make up the rule of law. 

3)  Outline the differences between the law and justice. 

4)  Identify four characteristics of justice. 

5)  What was the feudal system? Explain how it worked. 

6)  Outline the contributions of Henry II to the development of Canadian law. 

7)  Briefly describe the origins of the common law. 

8)  Why is the Magna Carta of such great importance in law today? 

9)  What is a writ of habeas corpus? Explain its purpose. 

10)  What is the central difference between Babylonian and Hebrew law?